Polish – Kashubian
1. Geography and demography
3. Politics, economy and general cultural and religious situation
4. Statistics and etnoprofile
5. Sociolinguistic situation
6. Language political situation
7. General contactlinguistic portrait
8. Evaluation of the sorces and literature
9. Bibliography (selected)
1.Geography and demography
Most of the Kashubians in Poland live in their historical habitat Kashuby. It is bordered by the Vistula (Wisła) river in the East, by the Piaśnica river in the West, by the Brda river in the South and by the Baltic Sea in the North. After 1945 a number of Kashubians moved east- and westwards into the territory gained from Germany after the war (around Miastko, Bytów and Lębork), whereas earlier Kashuby stretched farther west and south.
Today the number of Kashubians is estimated at about 300,000 plus an additional 200,000 “half-Kashubians” (mixed married couples) (cf. Latoszek 1990). Mainly at the end of the 19th century Kashubians migrated in great numbers (about 130,000 in total) usually from south Kashuby to Germany, Canada, and the United States, where they are quite numerous, but also Brazil, Australia and New Zealand (cf. Popowska-Taborska 1980, 21). After 1945 Germanized Slovincians and Kashubians from the area of Gniewino and Bytów emigrated to Germany.
Since the middle of the 10th century, Kashuby shared the history of Eastern Pomerania, which enjoyed considerable autonomy especially since the middle of the 11th century, and was ruled by its own dynasty in the second half of the 12th century. It became closely connected with Poland by the treaty of Kępno (1282). From 1309 to 1454, Pomerania was in the hands of the Teutonic Knights. Then it was incorporated into Poland. Between 1454 and 1637 the bordering areas of Bytów and Lębork were a Polish fiefdom in the possession of the Western Pomeranian dukes, and from 1657 through 1772 they belonged to Brandenburg. After the first partition of Poland (1772), Kashuby found itself under Prussian rule. In 1918 most of the area still inhabited by Kashubians was returned to Poland. Following the 1939-1945 occupation Kashuby and the old territories in the west including those of Slovincians became of Poland again.
The history of the Kashubians as the last Baltic West Slavonic tribe and their cultural and ethnic identity is closely tied with the history of Polish culture and language. The natural development of Kashuby towards political and ethnic unity collapsed at the turn of the 13th century with invasion of the Teutonic Knights. Kashuby became the Slavonic-German border. The ties with Poland having lasted for hundreds of years and the struggle with Germanization in the 19th and 20th centuries strenghtened the Kashubian sense of ethnic, regional and language identity. This was achieved by efforts of Florian Ceynowa (1817-1881), Kashubian writers such as Hieronim Derdowski (1852-1902), Alexander Majkowski (1876-1938), Jan Karnowski (1886-1939), Alexander Labuda (1902-1981) and Jan Trepczyk (1907-1989). Since 1929, these efforts were further promoted by activities of regional organisations of the Kashubian-Pomeranian Association [Zrzeszenie Kaszubsko-Pomorskie, ZK-P, founded 1929], particularly since 1956.
3. Politics, economy and general cultural and religious situation
Kashuby has achieved neither political nor economic autonomy. Its economy is determined by its natural resources and thus restricted to agriculture, farming, forestry and fishing, as with, for example, the settlements on Hel Peninsula. Part of the population is employed in the shipyards and harbours of Gdańsk and Gdynia.
Culture, education and science in Kashuby have been enclosed in the framework of Polish structures and institutions. Although there has always been a tendency towards some cultural autonomy, only recently have some regional issues appeared in the school curriculum (cf. 6.). Kashubian cultural life has been developing under the influence of Christianity as well as Polish and German cultures. It has been described among others by Ceynowa 1866-1868 and Sychta 1967-1976. A most lively part of this culture is Kashubian fiction writing: especially dramas by Sychta, short stories by Anna Łajming and open air peformances arranged by Paweł Szefka. The rich folk literature (fairytales, traditional stories, legends, proverbs, riddles) and folk music (songs, carols, couplets) have been preserved in the Kashubian magazines “Gryf”, “Zrzesz Kaszëbskô”, “Kaszëbë” and since 1963 in „Pomerania”. They are published under the auspices of The Museum of Kashubian and Pomeranian Writing and Music in Wejherowo. The folklore tradition has also been cultivated by numerous regional dance and song groups, folk music bandsm story-telling, song and reciting competitions. More material evidence of this culture is exhibited in “Skansen” museums (Kluki, Wdzydze) and other museums (Kartusy, Puck, Hel, Wiele). It has partially survived in architecture and folk crafts such as pottery, plaiting, embroidery, amber-working, sculpturing and glasspainting.
The Kashubians are very religious and traditionally adhere to the Roman Catholic faith. The shrines of the Virgin Mary in Sianowo and Swarzewo are often frequented places of worship. The cloisters, e. g. in Oliwa, Kartuzy, Żarnowiec, Żukowo, are ancient religious centres. The town of Wejherowo is famous for its 17th century calvary, a younger one exists at Wiele.
4. Statistics and ethnoprofile
Kashuby is inhabited by 1.5 mln people, who use standard Polish in official or rather formal situations. In informal settings, they often use their native dialects in spoken language, i. e. mostly the local, native Kashubian dialects, but also the dialects brought in by migrants from central, southern or eastern Poland.
4.1. There are 500,000 speakers of Kashubian. In villages they constitute up to 90%, this number decreases in the cities, namely in the agglomeration of Gdańsk, Sopot, Gdynia and in the periphery of the ethnic area, where they amount to only 15%. However, only 300,000 Kashubians regularly use Kashubian in speaking and very few use it in writing (cf. 5.1.).
The Kashubians are mostly bilingual (cf. 5.2.). In the past, especially during the partitions (1772-1918), they were even trilingual speaking Kashubian at home and with neighbours, Polish in church (lessons in cathechism, confessions) and German at school and in the office. They had also contact with the settlers speaking Plattdeutsch from the times of Teutonic Knights.
4.2. The usually used ethnonyms are: Kaszëbë, Pol. Kaszuby [Kashuby], Kaszëbi, Pol. Kaszubi [Kashubians], kaszëbskô mowa, Pol. Kaszubska mowa [the Kashubian speech]. In the past the name kaszëbsko-słowińskô mowa [Kashubian-Slovincian speech] (Ceynowa since 1866) and język pomorski [Pomeranian language] (by S. Ramułt – cf. 5.1. – in 1893) were used. The internal linguistic and cultural differentiation of the Kashubians was stressed by the names of ethnic subgroups like, e. g., Bylacy (in the north-east) who pronounced ł as l e. g. bél Pol. był ‘he was’ (this pronunciation ic called bylaczenie), Lesacy (the middle-east) who speaks their own dialect: lesackô mowa, Gachy (south-west): gaskô mowa, Zamoraki (south-east) who are also called Krubanie: zaborskô or krubańskô mowa. The extinct Słowińcë [Slovincians] (on Lake Gardno and Łebsko, north-west of Słupsk) used their own słowińskô szprôka [Slovincian dialect]. In Kabatki (in parishes Cecenowo and Główczyce, north-west of Lębork) also a separate dialect was used: kabackô mowa.
5. Sociolinguistic situation
Kashubian, regardless whether qualified by linguists as a dialect of Polish ar as a separate language, remains a basic characteristic of Kashubians in importance rating almost as high as place of birth and their self-identification as Kashubians. Polish dialectologists (e. g. Kazimierz Nitsch, Zdzisław Stieber, Karol Dejna) regarded Kashubian as a Polish dialect (cf. Popowska-Taborska 1980, 67) and treated Kashubian texts as dialectal.
5.1. Kashubian is a branch of the historical Pomeranian dialects related to the dialects spoken in Wielkopolska and Mazowsze. Written Kashubian influenced by Polish writing emerged during the Reformation in Western Pomerania in the 16th to 18th centuries (for instance as writings by Szymon Krofey, Michał Mostnik, cf. Popowska-Taborska 1980, 47-52). Its further development was stopped by Germanization.
Only since F. Ceynowa’s literary, scholarly, and public activity during the 19th century has the Kashubian language acquired a certain status:
1) that of considerably different dialect of Polish. As such it has been rapidly developing over centuries (cf. 4.2.), and it relates to standard Polish similarly to the other Polish dialects.
2) the status of a means of communication purposefully cultivated for use in private as well as public writing (Popowska-Taborska 1988, 88). Ceynowa endeavoured a program aimed towards introduction of a Kashubian standard in grammar, pronunciation and spelling (Topolińska 1980, 189). It is based on relics of older Kashubian texts (Krofey, Mostnik), and the spirit of the 1848 Revolution. Ceynowa published his own literary works in Kashubian. Similarly he compiled treatises on Kashubian grammar, and published Kashubian texts alongside with their translations into other Slavic languages and German. The so-called Young Kashubians (A. Majkowski, J. Karnowski, etc.) and writers connected with the “Zrzesz Kaszëbskô” magazine (e. g. A. Labuda, J. Trepczyk) were influenced by Stefan Ramułt (1859-1913), who in turn was fascinated by Ceynowa and decidedly supported giving Kashubian the status of a full-fledged standard language. This idea was later accepted by the young Friedrich Lorentz (1870-1937) (cf. Popowska-Taborska 1980, 66 f). While Ceynowa tried to bestow the literary dignity of Kashubian on a single dialect, in the twentieth for instance by A. Majkowski, J. Karnowski, etc., mirror the tendency to establish a standard on an interdialect basis.
5.2. The Kashubians speaking Kashubian (cf. 4.1.) are either in the situation of bilingualism or diglossia. The latter comprises literary (standard) Kashubian on the one hand and the local Kashubian dialect on the other, and is even more frequent since an active knowledge of literary Kashubian is minimal.
5.3. In the compact Kashubian settlement, as many as 90% of the Kashubians speak (!) Kashubian (cf. 4.1.), with 60% of them using it mostly or even exclusively. It is mainly spoken by old people, housewives and farmers. The younger generation, especially pupils, students and educated people in the country avoid the application of Kashubian. Middle generation and workers use Kashubian as often as Polish. Kashubian is spoken mainly in iformal situations in rural areas. It is less frequently used in the city and only occasionally in offices or institutions. It is used in the family between grandparents, parents and married couples. Socialization of the younger generation practically eliminates Kashubian in favour of Polish. Children often lear Kashubian from their schoolmates. About 50% of the Kashubian speakers are ashamed to use Kashubian outside their own social milieu in order not to reveal their rural origin, whereas speaking Polish suggests an urban life style and a higher social status.
6. Language political situation
The state pushed for assimilation of Kashubians by Germans during the partitions (1772-1918). However, after 1918 some autonomy of the Kashubians was recognized. Between 1945 and 1989 the state suppressed the regional culture and language of ethnic groups. The Kashubian cultural elite as well as the Kashubian-Pomeranian Association appreciate the ethnic values and kept trying to connect them with the Polish language and culture. These attempts are reflected in such slogans as: Ni ma Kaszub bez Polonii, a bez Kaszub Polsci [There are no Kashubians without Poland and no Poland without the Kashubians] (Derdowski in 1880) or Jestem Kaszubą! Polska Matką moją! [I am Kashubian! Poland is my Mother!] (Sędzicki in 1908). Members of the Kashubian-Pomeranian Association are aware that preservation of the Kashubian ethnic and cultural identity. The Kashubian accepted a plan for regionalization of schooling (1981) aware of the problems connected with teaching literary Kashubian especially in its written form.
6.1. After WW 2 the unified Polish educational system was not concerned with regional education of Kashubians. Similarly Kashubians do not strive for all-Kashubian schools. Rather they want the regionalization of education with the aim of introducing a broad variety of school subjects. The realization of such a curriculum, however, encounters difficulties connected with a lack of trained teachers, teaching material and textbooks, although we should mention the pioneer work by Wosiak-Śliwa/Cybulski 1992 and Gołąbek 1992. Lately it was attempted to introduce reading and writing in Kashubian at primary schools and as an optional language class at Gdańsk University.
6.2. Though occasionally and irregularly, Kashubian has been introduced into the liturgy in form of readings, homilies, chosen prayers and songs, due to the intiative of Kashubian priests and churchgoers. This promotes its social prestige and strengthens its ethnic character. The text of the Holy Mass and Gospels (1992) have been translated by the priest Franciszek Grucza and the New Testament by Eugeniusz Gołąbek (1993). Religious songs are promoted by cassette recording. Nevertheless, there is a mixed reaction on these attempts.
6.3. There is a reach Kashubian writing (Ceynowa since 1843), fiction (Derdowski since 1880), and especially lyrical poetry and drama. Kashubian literature was presented in Neureiter 1973, 1978 and Drzeżdżon 1986. Nowadays also young people are writing and Kashubian literature has been translated into Polish, Lusatian, Bielorussian, Czech, German and French. There have been translations into Kashubian from German, Latavian, Polish and Latin. However, Kashubian literature has a rather limited influence, which is expressed by referring to it as “a literature without a reader”.
6.4. Since the middle of the 19th century (Ceynowa) the standardization of literary Kashubian has been attempted, despite broad variation in spoken Kashubian. Consequently, the standardization of spelling is a complex issue, which has not been settled yet (cf. Breza/Treder 1974). There are only two bilingual dictionaries of literary Kashubian: Labuda 1981 and Trepczyk 1994. The grammar by Breza/Treder 1981 is only partially normative. Some writers pay particular attention to the proper selection of vocabulary, inflected form and sentence structures in order to avoid influences of standard Polish.
6.5. In mass media Kashubian is used only to a small degree: there is no exclusively Kashubian press (cf. 3.2.), and only some Kashubian articles appear in “Pomerania” and other non-periodical magazines. Similarly, there is no Kashubian TV or radio, except short infrequent informative programmes in which Kashubian is merely used for the recitation of poetry and prose; Kashubian tales, jokes, religious and other songs appear on cassetes. Literary and spoken Kashubian is promoted by theatrical groups (e. g. dramas by Sychta), singers, reciters and story-tellers (cf. 3.2.)
7. General contactlinguistic portrait
Spoken Kashubian differs clearly from inland Polish dialects as well as standard Polish, particularly by its phonetics, vocabulary and word-formation, less in inflection and syntax. Literary Kashubian
d on spoken language and analogies (evolutionary and genetic) as well as considerable differences have been reinforced by conscious avoidance of convergent forms and a preference for archaic forms (cf. 7.1.-7.3.). Despite that, literary Kashubian is closer to Polish than to spoken northern and central Kashubian because of many loan-words from Polish (especially abstract words and terminology) and considerable similarities in syntax.
7.1. Synchronically spoken, nasal vowels (e. g. zomb : ząbë, Pol. pronunciation zomp : zemby ‘tooth : teeth’) and depalatalization of proto-Slavonic *ě ≥ ’a (e. g. wierzec : wiara, Pol. wierzyć : wiara ‘to believe : belief’) prove that Kashubian belongs to the West Slavonic languages. Features of archaic northern Kashubian show is relatedness to the West Lech languages (e. g. Polabian): 1. ’ar ≥ *ŕ° : cwiardi, Pol. twardy ‘gard’, 2. áł ≤ *l°, ĺ° : dáłgi, wáłk, Pol. długi ‘long’, wilk ‘wolf’, 3. TłoT ≤ *TelT : młoc, płoc, Pol. mleć ‘grind’, pleć ‘to weed’, 4. TarT ≤ *TorT : warna, Pol. wrona ‘crow’. These connections are also suggested by free and variable stress as well as traces of an old quantitative opposition: gádá : gadac ‘to tattle’, spiéwá : spiewac ‘to sing’. The medieval processes represent, among others, the connections with the eastern Lech language (Polish): re-, je- ≤ ră-, jă-: rek, jerzmo, Pol. rak ‘crayfish’, jarzmo ‘yoke’, and -k, -c ≤ *-ъkъ, *-ьcь : kotk, ojc, Pol. kotek ‘little cat’, ojciec ‘father’. We can also mention a relic form: z ≤ З : jęza, Pol. jędza ‘shrew’. In Kashubian, like in other Polish dialects, long vowels ā, ō, ē changed into closed ones á, ó, é : cál ‘inch’, dół ‘pit’, chléb ‘bread’. The following features are axclusively Kashubian: i ≤ į ≤ *ę (non-depalatalized) (12th cent.): trzisc, Pol. trząść ‘to shake’; s, z, c, З ≤ ś, ź, ć, З´ (after 12th cent.): sedzec, Pol. siedzieć ‘to sit’; ë ≤ (short) ĭ, ў, ŭ (mid 17th cent.): lës, bëc, dëch, Pol. lis ‘fox’, być ‘to be’, duch ‘spirit’ or later ć, З´ ≤ k´, g´ : tacié nodzi, Pol. takie nogi ‘such legs’ and l ≤ ł : stól, Pol. stół ‘table’; the last one being restricted only to Bylacs and Slovincians (cf. 4.2.).
7.2. Nominal inflection is among other features characterized by: 1. north Kashubian archaic forms of Nom. sg. masc. of nouns as kam(ë) (besides such more recent forms as kamiéń, Pol. kamień ‘stone’) or preservation of -ę in Acc. sg. fem. of pronouns such as ję, naszę (beside ją ‘her’, naszą ‘our’, like as Polish); 2. later forms of adjectival inflection of nouns ending in *-ьje as kázanié ‘homily’, wieselé ‘wedding’, so for instance Gen. sg., e. g. wieselégo, Dat. sg. wiesélemu, next to older forms Gen. wiesela, Dat. wieseli. Northern and central Kashubian has an ending -ą (≤ -em): bratą, Pol. bratem ‘with a brother’ – in Instr. sg. masc.
Verb conjugation is mainly characterized by archaic forms: 1. present: znaję, znajesz (beside zną´m, znász, Pol. znam, znasz ‘I, you know’, 2. imperative: niesë, robi of archaic ending -i/-ë (besides nies, rób, Pol. nieś, rób ‘carry it, do it’), 3. preterite: znáł jem, znáł jes etc. next to more recent forms já, të znáł, Pol. znałem, znałeś ‘I, you knew’. The dual ending -ma, -ta appears in the plural. The relic forms of the dual especially in pronouns have been preserved in Kashubian, e. g. ma, naju, nama; wa, waju, wama.
7.3. Kashubian word formation differs from standard Polish not so much in the repertoire of the derivational morphemes and procedures but rather in their distribution. Examples: -ba : uczba, Pol. uczenie ‘learning’, -ę : celę, Pol. cielę beside cielak ‘calf’, -ica (demineut. and femin.) : bardawica, Pol. brodawka ‘wart’ and warblëca ‘hen-sparrow’, -iszcze : grabliszcze, Pol. grablisko ‘big rake’, -ota : miłota, Pol. miłość ‘love’, -owac : pisowac, Pol. pisywać ‘to write’, -unkl/-ënk : malënk, Pol. malowanie ‘paniting’ and malowidło ‘picture’, ná- : nálepi, Pol. najlepiej ‘best’. The Kashubian has a great tendency towards hypocorism (especially in speaking to children) not only with nouns but also adjectives and adverbs, e. g. daleczko ‘far’, pronouns, e. g. nick ‘nothing’, numerals, e. g. dwojiczko ‘two’, and mainly verbs, e. g. róbkac ‘to make’.
7.4. The genuinity of Kashubian vocabulary manifest itself in the preservation of many archaic forms (e. g. jesorë ‘fish-bones’, káłp ‘sea swan’, nogawica ‘stocking’) as well as in introduction of many Kashubian specific innovations (e. g. sënówc ‘son-in-law’, more recent golëtka ‘safety-razor blade’ ≤ żëletka, golëc ‘shave’; káłtón ‘tuft of matted hair’ and ‘mistletoe’). In the vocabulary the influence of standard Polish has been observable for centuries especially in administration, education, military, technical areas etc. where in Kashubian Polish words replace loan-words from German e. g. powiat – kréz ‘district’, zeszit – heft ‘exercise-book’, aramata – kanóna ‘cannon’. German loan-words constitute approx. 5% of the Kashubian vocabulary. Older loans come from Plattdeutsch (cf. 4.1.), more recent ones from literary German. Loan-words usually undergo phonetic and morphological assimilation, e. g. czis ≤ Germ. Kies ‘grit’.
7.5. Kashubian syntax is still to be described but it already appears to be largely Polonized. German contructions are quite numerous as well, e. g. zrobic czemu kuńc cf. Germ. ein Ende machen ‘to finish sth.’; German influence is reflected also on costructions with the word order, for instance the conjunction with the ale (German aber) ‘but’: to je ale dobré : Germ. es ist aber gut ‘how good it is’, while in Polish it is Ale to dobre.
8. Evaluation of the sources and literature
The history and the present state of the Kashubian language including the discussion concerning its linguistic status is presented most comprehensively by Popowska-Taborska (1980) complemented by a long lits of publications on the subject. Studies of the Kashubian literary language are fragmentary and mostly concered with spelling. Sychta’s Dictionary and The Limguistic Atlas of the Kashubian and Neighboouring Dialects (Stieber/Popowska-Taborska 1964) are the greatest achievements in the field of lexical studies, world formation and morphology including linguistic geography. An etymological dictionary (by W. Boryś and H. Popowska-Taborska) and a dictionary of the extinct Slovincian dialect (by Z. Sobierajski) are forthcoming. Kashubian collocation have been examined by Treder (1989). Less attention has been paid to issues of Kashubian inflection and least frequent have been studies of Kashubian syntax, whereas sociolinguistic research is rare (Latoszek 1990). Kashubian literature is published in Neureiter’s and Drzeżdżon 1986).
9. Bibliography (selected)
Boryś, Wiesław/Popowska-Taborska, Hanna (1994): Słownik etymologiczny kaszubszczyzny [Etomological Dictionary of Kashubian], vol. I A-Č, Warsaw.
Breza, Edward/Treder, Jerzy (1981): Gramatyka kaszubska. Zarys popularny [Kashubian Grammar. An outline], Gdańsk.
Breza, Edward/Treder, Jerzy (Eds.) (1975): Zasady pisowni kaszubskiej kaszubskiej [Principles of Kashubian Orthography], Gdańsk. Second edition 1984.
Ceynowa, Florian (1866-1868): Skôrb kaszëbsko-słowińsczi movë [Outline of the Kashub-Slovincian Language], Swiecé.
Drzeżdżon, Jan (1986): Współczesna literatura kaszubska 1945-1980 [Contemporary Kashubian Literature 1945-1980], Warszawa.
Gołąbek, Eugeniusz (1992): Rozmówki kaszubskie [Kashubian Phrase-book], Gdynia.
Labuda, Aleksander (1981): Słowôrz kaszëbsko-polsczi. Słownik polsko-kaszubski [Kaszub-Polish Dictionary. Polish-Kashubian Dictionary], Gdańsk.
Labuda, Gerard (1991): O Kaszubach, ich nazwie i ziemi zamieszkania [Kashubian People, their Name and Land], Gdynia.
Latoszek, Marek (Ed.) (1990): Kaszubi. Monografia socjologiczna [Kashubs. A sociologic Study], Rzeszów.
Lorentz, Friedrich (1934): Zarys etnografii kaszubskiej [An outline of Kashubian Ethnography], Toruń.
Majewicz, Alfred F. (1987): “National minorities in Poland”. In: Bulletin of the Institute for the Study of North Euroasian Cultures, Hokkaido University, 18, 279-300.
Neureiter, Ferdinand (1973): Kaschubische Anthologie, München.
Neureiter, Ferdinand (1978): Geschichte der kaschubischen Literatur, München. Second ed. 1991, Polish translation, Gdańsk 1982.
Popowska-Taborska, Hanna (1980): Kaszubszczyzna. Zarys dziejów [Kashubian. A historical outline], Warszawa.
Popowska-Taborska, Hanna (1988): “Język czy dialekt? – raz jeszcze o statusie kaszubszczyzny” [A Language or a Dialect? – the Status of Kashubian Reconsidered]. In: Język Polski, 28, 87-96.
Ramułt, Stefan (1893); Słownik języka pomorskiego czyli kaszubskiego [Dictionary of the Pomoranian i. e. Kashubian Language], Kraków.
Stieber, Zdzisław/Popowska-Taborska, Hanna (Eds.) (1964-1978): Atlas językowy kaszubszczyzny i dialektów sąsiednich [Linguistic Atlas of Kashubian and Neighboring Dialects], Vol. I-XV, Wrocław.
Sychta, Bernard (1967-1976): Słownik gwar kaszubskich na tle kultury ludowej [Dictionary of the Kashubian Language based on Folklore Culture], Vol. I-VII, Wrocław.
Topolińska, Zuzanna (1974): A Historical Phonology of the Kashubian Dialects of Polish, The Hague/Paris.
Topolińska, Zuzanna (1980): ”Kashubian”. In: The Slavic Literary Languages, Schenker A. M./Stankiewicz E. (Eds.), New Haven.
Treder, Jerzy (1989): Frazeologia kaszubska a wierzenia i zwyczaje (na tle porównawczym) [Kasubian Collocations, and Beliefs and Customs (a Comparative Study)], Wejherowo.
Trepczyk, Jan (1994): Słownik polsko-kaszubski [Polish-Kashubian Dictionary], Vol. I-II, Treder, J. (Ed.), Gdańsk.
Wosiak-Śliwa, Róża/Cybulski, Marek (1992): Kaszubski język literacki. Podręcznik dla lektoratów [Kashubian Literary Language. A Textbook], Gdańsk.
Digitalization: Dušan-Vladislav Paždjerski